Scareware is a type of malware in which victims are inundated with false alarms and phony threats. Users are led to believe that their system has been infected with malware, leading them to download and install software that has no practical purpose (apart from benefiting the perpetrator) or is malware in and of itself. Scareware is also known as deception software, rogue scanning software, and fraudware, among other things.
A classic type of scareware is the legitimate-looking popup ads that appear in your browser while you’re browsing the web, displaying language such as “Your computer may be infected with terrible spyware programs,” or “Your machine may be infected with harmful spyware programs.” It either offers to install the program (which is frequently contaminated with malware) for you or directs you to a fraudulent website where your machine becomes infected with malware.
Scamming software, sometimes known as scareware, is transmitted by spam email, which issues phony warnings or makes offers to users to purchase useless or hazardous services.
Baiting assaults, as the term implies, rely on making a false promise in order to stimulate a victim’s avarice or curiosity. They trick consumers into falling into a trap where their personal information is stolen or their computers are infected with malware.
Baiting is one of the most despised forms of malware distribution since it makes use of physical media to spread malware. Examples include leaving the bait (usually malware-infected flash drives) in conspicuous settings where potential victims are guaranteed to see them, or leaving the bait in plain sight (e.g., bathrooms, elevators, the parking lot of a targeted company). The bait has an authentic appearance, such as a label portraying it as the company’s payroll list, which adds to its authenticity.
Victims pick up the bait out of curiosity and insert it into a computer at work or at home, resulting in the automated installation of malware on the computer system.
Baiting schemes do not have to be carried out in the physical world in order to be effective. Baiting occurs online in the form of appealing advertisements that direct visitors to harmful websites or that entice them to download a malware-infected application.
Pretexting is a technique in which an attacker gets information by telling a succession of carefully designed lies. Perpetrators of this scam frequently approach victims by professing to require sensitive information from them in order to complete a key activity.
The attacker usually begins by gaining trust with their victim by impersonating coworkers, police officers, bank and tax officials, or other individuals who have the authority to know what is going on in their workplace. The pretexter asks inquiries that are apparently necessary to validate the victim’s identification, but which are actually used to obtain sensitive personal information about the victim.
With the use of this fraud, all kinds of important information and data can be obtained, including social security numbers, personal addresses and phone numbers, phone logs, vacation dates for employees, bank records, and even security information relating to a physical plant.